Category Archives: Guides

What are Laminated Bus Bars?

Rather than use one solid bar of copper, the industry prefers laminated bus bars. These are fabricated components with layers of engineered copper bars separated by flat dielectric materials, bound together into a unified construction. Laminated bus bars offer several advantages—improved reliability and reduced system costs. They are available in various sizes and shapes, some as big as a fingertip while others more than twenty feet in length. Several industries use multilayered bus bar solutions Read more [...]

Are Ferrites Good for Interference Suppression?

Although ferrite beads and sleeves are a common sight on cables, the technique for reducing both outgoing and incoming RF interference is the least understood. To study ferrites, and to do some comparative frequency domain measurements, one needs actual ferrite samples, a specially designed test jig, a spectrum analyzer, and a tracking generator. Any current flowing through a metal conductor will create a magnetic field around it. The inductance of the conductor transfers the energy between the Read more [...]

How do Antistatic Bags Work?

Computer boards and sensitive electronic components need protection from electrostatic discharge, especially at the time of shipping, handling, and assembly. This requirement has led to the development of an entirely new class of antistatic packaging materials. Now, a multi-million dollar packaging industry exists, with major developments in polymers. These are special conductive polyethylene and other laminates covered with very thin metalized films. This packaging industry saves several hundred Read more [...]

Problems Mains Harmonics Cause

Single-phase power converters are specifically problematic since they generate significant levels of triplen harmonics, such as the 3rd, 9th, 15th, etc. As they do not undergo phase cancellation, they add up linearly in the neutral conductor to create a particular nuisance. Apart from this, they are also present in zero-phase transformer flux, and heat up cables and transformers. Although three-phase converters also generate harmonic emissions, the triplen currents produced by them are of much lower Read more [...]

Raspberry Pi and Traffic Lights

Although we come across traffic lights almost every time we step out of our homes, we rarely stop to think about how they work. However, Gunnar Pelpman has done just that, and he has put the hugely popular single board computer, Raspberry Pi to good use. While most of the tutorials introduce turning on and off LEDs, he has prepared a somewhat more complex tutorial, one that teaches how to program traffic lights. Moreover, he has done this with the Raspberry Pi (RBPi) running the Windows 10 IoT Core. Traffic Read more [...]

USB Type C and USB 3.1 Gen 2 – What is the Difference?

With the need for increasing capabilities, USB technology has evolved and improved over several years. Recently, the USB Implementation Forum has released the specifications for the SuperSpeed+1 standard or USB 3.1 Gen 2 signal standard and the USB Type C connector. Data transfer rates have been increasing from USB 1.0, released in January 1996, with a full speed of 1.5 MB/s, to USB 2.0, released in April 2000, with full speed of 60 MB/s, and to USB 3.0, released in Nov 2008, with a full speed of Read more [...]

How does LoRa Benefit IoT?

Cycleo, a part of Semtech since 2012, has developed and patented a physical layer with a modulation type, with the name LoRA or Long Range, where the transmission utilizes the license-free ISM bands. LoRa consumes very low power and is therefore, ideal for IoT for data transmission. Sensor technology is one possible field of application for LoRa, where low bit rates are sufficient, and where the sensor batteries last for months or even years. Other applications are in the industry, environment technology, Read more [...]

Why Use a Multi-Layer PCB?

Although a multi-layer PCB is more expensive than a single or double-layer board of the same size, the former offers several benefits. For a given circuit complexity, the multi-layer PCB has a much smaller size as compared to that a designer can achieve with a single or even a double-layer board—helping to offset the higher cost—with the main advantage being the higher assembly density the multiple layers offer. There are other benefits of a multi-layer PCB as well, such as increased flexibility Read more [...]

What are Multi-Layer PCBs?

Most electronic equipment have one or more Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) with components mounted on them. The wiring to and from these PCBs determines the basic functionality of the equipment. It is usual to expect a complex PCB within equipment meant to deliver highly involved performance. While a single layer PCB is adequate for simple equipment such as a voltage stabilizer, an audio amplifier may require a PCB with two layers. Equipment with more complicated specifications such as a modem or a Read more [...]

How do Surge Trap SPDs Work?

Surge trap Surge Protection Devices or SPDs are protection devices to absorb high-energy power spikes that could damage sensitive electronic equipment such as process controllers, instrumentation, and computers. They divert high-energy power away from an appliance by providing a low-impedance path to the common point earth ground. Frequently, panel boards use several metal oxide varistors or MOVs, connected in parallel, to act as surge suppressors or traps. AC surge suppressors most commonly use Read more [...]