Category Archives: Guides

Motor Run & Motor Start Capacitors

Electric motors exploit the interaction between two magnetic fields for rotating a shaft. The stator windings generate one of the fields, and the rotor windings provide the other. In some DC motors, permanent magnets replace one of the windings, while the commutator, whether brushed or brush-less, changes the direction of the current in the other winding to continuously alter the interaction between the two magnetic fields to allow the motor to rotate. In three-phase AC motors, the interaction between Read more [...]

Storing Data with Light

Currently, we have several methods of storing and transmitting data. The most common method followed is storing data on a magnetic hard disk in the form of bits. Here minute magnetic domains form a North and a South pole pair, with the direction of the magnetization of the poles defining whether the stored bit is a digital 1 or a 0. Writing the data means physically switching the magnetization of the relevant bit, one at a time. Switching or changing the magnetization of each bit requires the application Read more [...]

Role of LEDs in Horticulture

While LEDs have revolutionized indoor and exterior lighting methods, they have been revolutionizing operations involving indoor grow facilities. This is mainly because LEDs are highly flexible in their spectral output, while their efficiency is very high. That means they emit much lower heat. A new standard from ASABE specifies the performance of LED lighting products for horticulture applications. The standard spells out the test methods to measure the optical radiation from LEDs in the range 280-800 Read more [...]

What are Laminated Bus Bars?

Rather than use one solid bar of copper, the industry prefers laminated bus bars. These are fabricated components with layers of engineered copper bars separated by flat dielectric materials, bound together into a unified construction. Laminated bus bars offer several advantages—improved reliability and reduced system costs. They are available in various sizes and shapes, some as big as a fingertip while others more than twenty feet in length. Several industries use multilayered bus bar solutions Read more [...]

Are Ferrites Good for Interference Suppression?

Although ferrite beads and sleeves are a common sight on cables, the technique for reducing both outgoing and incoming RF interference is the least understood. To study ferrites, and to do some comparative frequency domain measurements, one needs actual ferrite samples, a specially designed test jig, a spectrum analyzer, and a tracking generator. Any current flowing through a metal conductor will create a magnetic field around it. The inductance of the conductor transfers the energy between the Read more [...]

How do Antistatic Bags Work?

Computer boards and sensitive electronic components need protection from electrostatic discharge, especially at the time of shipping, handling, and assembly. This requirement has led to the development of an entirely new class of antistatic packaging materials. Now, a multi-million dollar packaging industry exists, with major developments in polymers. These are special conductive polyethylene and other laminates covered with very thin metalized films. This packaging industry saves several hundred Read more [...]

Problems Mains Harmonics Cause

Single-phase power converters are specifically problematic since they generate significant levels of triplen harmonics, such as the 3rd, 9th, 15th, etc. As they do not undergo phase cancellation, they add up linearly in the neutral conductor to create a particular nuisance. Apart from this, they are also present in zero-phase transformer flux, and heat up cables and transformers. Although three-phase converters also generate harmonic emissions, the triplen currents produced by them are of much lower Read more [...]

Raspberry Pi and Traffic Lights

Although we come across traffic lights almost every time we step out of our homes, we rarely stop to think about how they work. However, Gunnar Pelpman has done just that, and he has put the hugely popular single board computer, Raspberry Pi to good use. While most of the tutorials introduce turning on and off LEDs, he has prepared a somewhat more complex tutorial, one that teaches how to program traffic lights. Moreover, he has done this with the Raspberry Pi (RBPi) running the Windows 10 IoT Core. Traffic Read more [...]

USB Type C and USB 3.1 Gen 2 – What is the Difference?

With the need for increasing capabilities, USB technology has evolved and improved over several years. Recently, the USB Implementation Forum has released the specifications for the SuperSpeed+1 standard or USB 3.1 Gen 2 signal standard and the USB Type C connector. Data transfer rates have been increasing from USB 1.0, released in January 1996, with a full speed of 1.5 MB/s, to USB 2.0, released in April 2000, with full speed of 60 MB/s, and to USB 3.0, released in Nov 2008, with a full speed of Read more [...]

How does LoRa Benefit IoT?

Cycleo, a part of Semtech since 2012, has developed and patented a physical layer with a modulation type, with the name LoRA or Long Range, where the transmission utilizes the license-free ISM bands. LoRa consumes very low power and is therefore, ideal for IoT for data transmission. Sensor technology is one possible field of application for LoRa, where low bit rates are sufficient, and where the sensor batteries last for months or even years. Other applications are in the industry, environment technology, Read more [...]