If you are looking for a small, fast, low-cost, easy-to-use, and readily available vision system for your Raspberry Pi or RBPi, then the Pixy can be a great choice. Pixy or CMUCam5 is somewhat more than a normal camera that you may have used so far for your single board computer. It comes with several features not available on most camera systems.
First, Pixy is versatile – use it for all kinds of projects. Along with the hardware, you will receive all kinds of information – PCB layout, bill of materials, schematics, and other hardware documentation. All software/firmware is GNU-licensed and open-source. The configuration utility provided with Pixy runs on all platforms – Windows, MacOS, and Linux. RBPi can communicate with Pixy over one of several interfaces – analog/digital output, USB, UART, I2C, or SPI. The Pixy comes with all libraries for RBPi, BeagleBone, and Arduino and supports programs written in Python and C/C++. The cable provided with Pixy can connect directly to Arduino, and it also works with BeagleBone and RBPi.
On the performance side, Pixy can learn to detect and recognize objects that you have taught it and outputs what it detects 50 times per second. With a Pixy, an RBPi and a servo control board, you can reconstruct Wall-E, the waste-collecting robot.
Pixy resulted from a partnership of the Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute with Charmed Labs. First started as a Kickstarter campaign, Pixy is now the most popular vision system since it first started selling in March 2014. You can gage the versatility of Pixy from the activities it can do in association with an RBPi – pick up objects, chase a ball, locate a charging station, and more – doing all this with a single vision sensor.
Although there are other vision systems that can sense or detect practically anything, almost all of them have two drawbacks. One, they output huge amounts of data, a few megabytes per second. Two, enormous computing power is necessary to process this data, leaving the attached SBC with little else to cater to other tasks.
Pixy gets around these barriers as it pairs a powerful and dedicated processor along with its image sensor. The processor does all the processing of the data captured by the image sensor, and sends only the relevant information to the attached SBC. For example, yellow ball detected at x=50, y=110. Therefore, the RBPi can easily talk to Pixy and still have enough computing power left over for other activities. That also means you can have multiple Pixy cams hooked up to your RBPi. For instance, you can make a robot with a 360-degree sensing capability with four Pixys.
Although Pixy began with interfacing capabilities with the Arduino controller, it has matured sufficiently to be able to communicate with other controllers as well. The Pixy comes with all sorts of software libraries and a Python API for connecting to Linux-based controllers, such as an RBPi.
On-board Pixy is a color-based filtering algorithm that helps in detecting colored objects. The popular color-based filtering method makes Pixy singularly fast, efficient, and relatively robust. Pixy examines each RGB pixel from the image sensor and computes the saturation and hue to use as its primary filtering parameters.