Tag Archives: Internet of things

Sensors at the Heart of IoT

IoT, or the Internet of Things, depends on sensors. So much so, there would not be any IoT, IIoT, or for that matter, any type of Industry 4.0, at all, without sensors. As the same factors apply to all the three, we will use IoT as a simplification. However, some basic definitions first.

As a simple, general definition, IoT involves devices intercommunicating with useful information. As their names suggest, for IIoT and Industry 4.0, these devices are mainly located in factories. While IIoT is a network of interconnected devices and machines on a plant floor, Industry 4.0 goes a step further. Apart from incorporating IIoT, Industry 4.0 expands on the network, including higher level systems as well. This allows Industry 4.0 to process and analyze data from IIoT, while using it for a wider array of functions, including looping it back into the network for control.

However, the entire network has sensors as its basis, supplying it with the necessary raw data. Typically, the output from sensors is in the form of electrical analog signals, and IoT creates the fundamental distinction between data and information.

This distinction is easier to explain with an example. For instance, a temperature sensor, say, a thermistor, shows electrical resistance that varies with temperature. However, that resistance is in the form of raw data, in ohms. It has no meaning to us, until we are able to correlate it to degrees.

Typically, we measure the resistance with a bridge circuit, effectively converting the resistance to voltage. Next, we apply the derived voltage to a measuring equipment that we have calibrated to show voltage as degrees. This way, we have effectively converted data into information useful to us, humans. However, we can still use the derived voltage to control an electric heater or inform a predictive maintenance system of the temperature of a motor.

But information, once we have derived it from raw data, has almost endless uses. This is the realm of IoT, intercommunicating useful information among devices.

To be useful for IoT, we must convert the analog data from a sensor to a digital form. Typically, the electronics required for doing this is the ADC or Analog to Digital Converter. With IoT applications growing rapidly, users are also speeding up their networks, thereby handling even larger amounts of data, making them more power efficient.

Scientists have evolved a new method for handling large amounts of data that does not require the IoT devices to have large amounts of memory. The devices send their data over the internet to external data centers, the cloud. There, other computers handle the proper storing and analysis of the data. However, this requires higher bandwidth and involves latency.

This is where the smart sensor makes its entry. Smart sensors share the workload. A sensor is deemed smart when it is embedded within a package that has electronics for preprocessing, such as for signal conditioning, analog to digital conversion, and wireless transmission of the data. Lately, smart sensors are also incorporating AI or Artificial Intelligence capabilities.

Matter and Simplicity Studio

So far, home automation has always meant selecting an appropriate ecosystem. Well, that is a thing of the past now, as all IoT or Internet of Things devices can intercommunicate with this new, open-source protocol. Now designers can develop small demo applications that are Matter-compatible, and they can use the new Matter Development board, the SparkFun Thing Plus, and the Simplicity Studio IDE from the Silicon Labs.

Until now, multiple communication protocols have kept IoT devices a rather scattered lot. Developers and consumers were forced to decide how to make their devices communicate and lock them into that environment. With the introduction of Matter, however, those are days of the past, as Matter is a unified, open-source application-layer connectivity standard. Apart from increasing the connectivity among connected home devices, Matter allows the building of reliable and secure ecosystems.

In 2019, major and competing players such as Zigbee Alliance, Google, Apple, Amazon, and a host of other companies such as Nordic Semiconductors got together to develop a single communication protocol. Their aim was to unify the entire world of the Internet of Things. The result was Matter, a royalty-free, open-source protocol that allows devices to communicate over Thread, Bluetooth Low Energy, and Wi-Fi networks. Therefore, Matter-certified devices can communicate with each other regardless of the wireless technology they use, and do so seamlessly.

Now, there is no need for consumers, manufacturers, and developers to have to choose between Google’s Weave, Amazon’s Alexa, or Apple’s Homekit components. While for consumers, this represents increased compatibility, for manufacturers, it means simplified development.

The major benefit of Matter is it simplifies the management and setup of smart home devices. End-users can now set up their smart home systems easily and quickly, using Matter-certified devices. They will not need any technical skills or specialized knowledge. With the protocol supporting end-to-end encryption, safety is in-built, ensuring secure data transmission between devices.

However, this does not mean designers have been relegated to the role of consumers. The Sparkfun Thing Plus Matter Development Board from Sparkfun Electronics combines Matter and the Sparkfun Qwiic ecosystem, thereby providing an agile development and prototyping arrangement for designers of Matter-based IoT devices.

Silicon Labs offers its MGM240P wireless module for a secure 802.15.4 connectivity for both Bluetooth Low Energy 5.3 and Mesh (Thread) protocols. This module is available and ready for integration into the Matter IoT protocol for home automation. Moreover, the Thing Plus development boards are compatible with Feather, and include a Qwiic connector, thereby allowing easy integration for solderless I2C circuits.

Designers can download the latest Simplicity Studio from the Silicon Labs website, for the specific operating system they are using. It may be necessary to create an account for the download. After installing and running Simplicity Studio for the first time, the Installation Manager will come up, and search for any updates available. After updating, the Simplicity Studio will operate as the latest version.

In the next step, the Installation Manager will ask to install the devices by either connecting them or by defining the technology they use. The Installation Manager may want to install additional required packages before proceeding.

High-Efficiency Solar Cells for IoT Devices

As per expert estimates, by 2025, the worldwide number of IoT, or the Internet of Things, could rise to 75 billion. However, most IoT devices have sensors that run on batteries. Replacing these batteries can be a problem, especially for long-term monitoring.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have now produced photovoltaic-powered sensors. These sensors can transmit data potentially for several years, before needing a replacement. The researchers achieved this by mounting thin-film perovskite cells as energy harvesters on low-cost RFID or radio-frequency identification tags. Perovskite cells are notoriously inexpensive, highly flexible, and relatively easy to fabricate.

According to the researchers, the future will have billions of sensors all around. Rather than power the sensors with batteries, the photovoltaic-powered sensors could use ambient light. It would be possible to deploy them and then forget them for months at a time or even years.

In a pair of papers the researchers have published, they have described the process of using sensors to monitor indoor and outdoor temperatures continuously over many days. No batteries were necessary for the sensors to transmit a continuous stream of data over a distance greater than five times that traditional RFID tags could. The significance of a long data transmission range means the user can employ one reader for collecting data simultaneously from multiple sensors.

Depending on the presence of moisture and heat in the environment, the sensors can remain under a cover or exposed for months or years before they degrade enough requiring a replacement. This can be valuable for applications requiring long-term sensing indoors as well as outdoors.

For creating self-powered sensors, many other researchers have tried solar cells for IoT devices. However, in most cases, these were the traditional solar cells and not the perovskite type. Although traditional solar cells can be long-lasting, efficient, and powerful under certain conditions, they are rather not suitable for universal IoT sensors.

The reason is, traditional solar cells are expensive and bulky. Moreover, they are inflexible and non-transparent—suitable and useful for monitoring the temperature on windows and car windshields. Most designs of traditional solar cells allow them to effectively harvest energy from bright sunlight, but not from low levels of indoor light.

On the other hand, it is possible to print perovskite cells using easy roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques costing only a few cents each. They can be made into thin, flexible, and transparent sheets. Furthermore, they can be tuned to harvest energy from outdoor or indoors lighting.

Combining a low-cost RFID tag with a low-cost solar power source makes them battery-free stickers. The combination allows for monitoring billions of products all over the world. Adding three to five cents more, it is possible to add tiny antennas working at ultra-high frequencies to the stickers.

Using a communication technique known as backscatter, RFID tags can transmit data. They reflect the modulated wireless signals from the tag and send it back to their reader. The reader is a wireless device, very similar to a Wi-Fi router, and it pings the tag. In turn, the tag powers up and using backscattering, sends a unique signal with information about the product on which it is stuck.

Energy from Vibrations for IoT Devices

Producing energy from vibrations is nothing new, and the world is always hungry for more clean energy. Engineers now have a new material that can convert simple mechanical vibrations all around it, to electricity. The electricity is enough to power most sensors on the Internet of Things ranging from spacecraft to pacemakers.

Engineers at the University of Toronto and the University of Waterloo have produced the material after decades of work. Their research has generated a novel compact electricity-generating system that they claim is reliable, low-cost, and green.

According to the researchers, their achievement will have a significant impact on social and economic levels, as it will reduce the reliance on non-renewable energy sources. They claim the world needs these energy-harvesting materials critically at this moment in time.

Energy harvesting technology produces small amounts of energy from external effects such as heat, light, and vibrations. For instance, an energy-harvesting device worn on the body could generate energy from body movements, such as from the legs or arm movements while walking. Most such devices produce enough energy to power personal health monitoring systems.

Based on the piezoelectric effect, the new material that the researchers have developed generates an electric current when there is pressure on it. Mechanical vibrations are one example of the type of pressure on the appropriate substance.

The piezoelectric effect is known and in use since 1880, and people have been using many piezoelectric materials like Rochelle salts and quartz. The technology has been in use for producing sonars, ultrasonic imaging, and microwave devices.

However, until now, most traditional piezoelectric materials in use in commercial devices have had a low finite capability for generating electricity. Moreover, most of these materials use Lead, which is detrimental to the environment and to human health as well.

The researchers solved both the above problems in one go. They grew a single large crystal of a molecular metal. This was a halide compound known as edabco copper chloride. For this, they used the Jahn-Teller effect, which is a well-understood concept in Chemistry, and offers a spontaneous geometric distortion in the crystal field.

The researchers proceeded to fabricate nanogenerators with the highly piezoelectric material they had produced. The nanogenerators had a significant power density and could harvest small mechanical vibrations in many dynamic circumstances involving those from automobile vehicles and even human motion. The nanogenerators neither used Lead nor needed non-renewable energy sources.

Each nanogenerator is just a shade smaller than an inch square, or 2.5 x 2.5 cm, and the thickness of a business card. It is possible to use them in various situations. They have a significant potential for powering sensors in vast arrays of electronic devices, such as those used by IoT or the Internet of Things, of which the world uses billions, and requires substantially more.

According to the researchers, the new material could have far-reaching consequences. For instance, the vibrations from an aircraft would be enough to power its systems for monitoring its various sensors. On the other side, vibrations from a person’s heartbeat could power their pacemaker, which can run without a battery.

FireBeetle Drives Artificial Internet of Things

The next generation of the FireBeetle 2 development board is now available. Targeting the IoT, especially the Artificial Intelligence of Things, it has an onboard camera. According to DFRobot, the creator, the FireBeetle boasts Bluetooth and Wi-Fi connectivity, and an Espressif ESP32-S3 module.

Built around the ESP32-S3-WROOM-1-N16R8 module, the main controller of the FireBeetle provides high performance. It operates with 16MB of flash RAM, along with 8MB of pseudo-static RAM or PSRAM that allows it to store more data. The ESP32-S3 chip provides acceleration for computing neural networks and processing signals for high workloads. This makes the FireBeetle ideal for many applications like image recognition, speech recognition, and many more.

DFRobot has designed the heart of the FireBeetle, the ESP32-S3, for edge AI and low-power tinyML work. With two CPU cores, the Tensilica Xtensa LX7, both operating at 240 MHz, the ESP32-S3 also offers vector processing extensions. The design specifically targets accelerated machine learning, including workloads of artificial intelligence. In addition to the 8MB PSRAM and the 16MB Flash memory, the board also has 384kB of flash and 512kB of on-chip SRAM.

The FireBeetle development board, along with its BLE or Bluetooth 5 Low Energy and Wi-Fi connectivity, also includes an onboard camera interface driven by a dedicated power supply circuit. The camera has a 2-megapixel sensor with a 68-degree FOV or Field of Vision. There is a GDI connector, which is useful for adding a TFT display.

DFRobot offers two variants of the FireBeetle development board. One of them is the standard version, namely the FireBeetle 2 ESP32-S3, containing a PCB antenna for wireless connectivity. The second variation is the FireBeetle 2 ESP32-S3-U, and it offers a connector for rigging up an external antenna. It is possible to program both boards from Arduino IDE, ESP-IDF, and MicroPython.

It is possible to order both development boards from the DFRobot website store, The second variant is the costlier of the two, and both come with volume discounts. Although both variants come with the board and camera, the pin headers are bundled loosely but not soldered. DFRobot has published a simple project for the FireBeetle—a camera-based monitor to oversee the growth of plants.

It is possible to use the FireBeetle development board to build a DIY plant growth recorder. It allows monitoring the entire growth process of the plant, starting from seeding right up to maturity, while tracking the environmental conditions throughout. This makes it possible to identify any changes easily that could affect the health and growth of the plant, along with any fluctuations in temperature, light levels, and humidity. This information helps to organize and optimize the growing conditions of the plant, thereby ensuring that the plants get everything they need for proper growth.

The project has a screen for displaying the various parameters it is monitoring. The camera periodically captures images of the plant as it grows, storing them in the board’s memory. The board transmits real-time images and environmental data over Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for regular viewing.

Preserving IoT Battery Life

At MIT, researchers have built a wake-up receiver for IoT devices. The receiver uses terahertz waves to communicate, making the chip more than ten times smaller than contemporary devices. The receiver also includes authentication that helps protect it from certain types of attacks. The low power consumption of the chip means it can help preserve battery life in robots or tiny sensors.

The current trend is towards developing ever-smaller devices for IoT or the Internet of Things. For instance, sensors can be smaller than a fingertip, capable of making any object trackable. Most of these tiny sensors, however, have even tinier batteries that are nearly impossible to replace. Therefore, engineers need to incorporate a wake-up device in these sensors. It keeps the device in a low-power sleep mode when not operating, thereby preserving battery life. The new device from MIT is capable of protecting the device from certain attacks that could drain its battery rather quickly.

The present generation of wake-up receivers is typical of the centimeter scale. This is because their antennas need to be proportional to the length of the radio waves they use for communicating. On the other hand, the MIT team utilized the terahertz wave for the receiver. As these waves are about one-tenth the length of regular radio waves, they could design the chip to be barely greater than a square millimeter.

It is possible to incorporate the wake-up receiver into microbots for monitoring environmental changes in locations that are either hazardous or too small for other robots to reach. As the device operates on terahertz frequencies, it is possible to use them in emerging applications like radio networks that operate as field-deployable swarms for collecting localized data.

Using terahertz frequencies, the researchers could make antennas the size of a few hundred micrometers on either side. The implication of such small-size antennas is that it is possible to integrate them on the chip, thereby creating a totally integrated solution. Ultimately, the researchers could build a wake-up receiver tiny enough to attach to tiny radios or sensors.

On the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz waves exist between infrared light and microwaves. At very high frequencies, they travel much quicker than radio waves can. Terahertz waves, also known as pencil beams, travel in a rather direct path as compared to other signals, making them more secure.

However, terahertz receivers often multiply their signal by another signal so that they can alter their frequency. This process is termed frequency mixing or modulation, and it consumes a huge amount of power. The researchers at MIT used a pair of tiny transistors as antennas for detecting terahertz waves. This method of detecting consumes very little power, as it does not involve frequency mixing.

Even when they placed both antennas on the chip, the MIT wake-up chip was only 1.54 square millimeters and used only 3 microwatts to operate. The presence of two antennas maximizes its performance and makes it more sensitive to receiving signals. Once it detects the terahertz signal, it converts the analog signal into digital data for processing. The received signal contains a token, which, if it matches the wake-up receiver’s token, will activate the device.

Difference Between IoT and Embedded Systems

Today, we are accustomed to using many IoT or Internet of Things and embedded systems every day. But just a decade ago, very few people had smartphones. Innovations and technological advancements have changed that—ushering in an era of the smart revolution almost globally. With the advent of the 4th Industrial Revolution and the revolutionary use of IoT equipment, several million devices link to the internet and cloud services. We can easily connect to the world around us, mainly due to IoT connectivity along with the evolution of regular gadgets. Many new equipment and devices now come inbuilt with IoT technologies, and these include not only personal fitness devices, but also kitchen items, home heating systems, and medical equipment.

Embedded systems typically comprise a small computer integrated into a mechanical or electrical system. Some examples of such devices include electric bikes, washing machines, home internet routers, and heart monitors. Each of these devices comes with an inbuilt computer that serves a specific purpose. Forming the brain of the device, the computers may have one or more microprocessors. For instance, a smartphone consists of many embedded systems interconnected to function simultaneously. So far, embedded systems hardly ever connect to larger networks such as the Internet. Most still use antiquated connection standards such as the RS-232 to interconnect to other embedded systems. These protocols are usually plagued with bandwidth and speed constraints. In comparison, modern communication protocol standards for embedded systems are much faster and support higher bandwidth. Many also support wireless connectivity. All in all, modern embedded systems are more sophisticated than before.

IoT devices, on the other hand, are rather pieces of hardware. They can be machines, appliances, gadgets, actuators, or sensors. Their main function is to transfer data over networks such as the Internet. The design of most IoT devices allows them to be useful for specific purposes. It is possible to integrate IoT devices into various appliances, including industrial machinery, medical equipment, environmental sensors, and mobile systems. There are IoT embedded systems also, and they are embedded systems that connect to the internet or other networks like home networks. Most are capable of carrying out tasks beyond the capabilities of the individual system. Connectivity allows them to perform functions that were not possible earlier.

Sensors effectively behave as the Internet of Things or IoT devices when they can transmit data over networks, including the Internet. It is possible for an embedded system to be enhanced with IoT capabilities by incorporating an IoT module. The basic IoT ecosystem roots still rely heavily on embedded systems. It is possible to gauge the importance of embedded systems within the IoT realm by the fact that embedded systems support much of the functionality of IoT devices.

Although a network, such as the Internet, is a necessary medium for transmitting data to and from IoT devices to their cloud services, embedded systems help in the actual collection, rationalization, interpretation, and transmission of the data from the sensor. Embedded systems also help interface the data with online services, smartphone applications, and nearby computers. In this chain, the numerous sensors that actually collect real-world data, remain the most important link.

Green and Wireless IoT

IoT or the Internet of Things presents devices with a collection of components for connecting various systems, software, and people via the Internet technology. Of these, the communications network is a crucial component, and the IoT wireless technology enables this. The communications network acts as the gateway between a software platform and an IoT device.

In many industries and even in daily life, the IoT is already displaying a major impact. IoT basically connects a variety of smart objects of different shapes and sizes, facilitating data exchange between them. These objects can be self-driven cars with sensors that can detect road obstacles, home-security systems, and temperature-controlled industrial equipment. Furthermore, the interconnection is often over the internet and other communications and sensing networks.

Several thin-film device technologies are emerging. They typically rely on alternative semiconductor materials, which can be nanocarbon allotropes, printable organics, and metal oxides. As suggested by an international team, KAUST, these could contribute to a more environmentally sustainable and economical Internet of Things.

By the next decade, expect the ballooning hyper-network of IoT to reach trillions of devices. This will boost the number of sensor devices this platform deploys.

The present IoT technology relies heavily on batteries to power sensor nodes. Unfortunately, batteries require regular replacement. That makes them environmentally harmful and expensive over time. Moreover, the present global production of lithium for battery materials may be unable to keep up with the increasing numbers of sensors and their energy demand.

An alternative approach relies on energy harvesters and wirelessly powered sensor nodes for achieving a more sustainable IoT. These energy harvesters may be radio-frequency-based, photovoltaic cell-based, or use other technologies. Such power sources could readily enable large-area electronics.

The KAUST team has assessed the viability of several large-area electronic technologies for their potential of delivering wirelessly powered IoT that is more eco-friendly.

Relative to conventional technologies based on silicon, large-area electronics are now emerging as an appealing alternative. This is because of the significant progress that solution-based processing is making, resulting in easily printable devices and circuits on flexible, large-area substrates. It is possible to produce them at low temperatures and on a variety of biodegradable substrates like paper. That allows more eco-friendly sensors in comparison to counterparts based on silicon.

The KAUST team has, over the years, been developing a wide range of radio-frequency-based electronic components. These include organic polymer and metal oxide-based semiconductor devices commonly known as Schottky diodes. For making wireless energy harvesters, these devices are very crucial, ultimately dictating the cost and performance of sensor nodes.

The KAUST team has been making key contributions that have included scalable methods of manufacturing RF diodes for harvesting energy. These diodes easily reach the 5G/6G frequency ranges. According to the team, these technologies are providing the necessary building blocks to sustain a trend towards a more sustainable way of powering the future billions of sensor nodes.

Currently, the team is investing in the integration of low-power monolithic devices with sensors and antennae for showcasing their true potential.

IoT and DIP Switches

Pre-configuring equipment helps in many ways. In the field, the ability to pre-configure functionality eases installation procedures, helps in diagnostics, and reduces downtime. DIP switches are very popular for pre-configuring devices and an increase in their demand is accelerating the flexibility in their design.

Although designers nowadays prefer to use re-programmable memories and software menus in equipment, DIP switches customizing the behavior of electronic devices was have always been present. DIP switches present an easy-to-use method for changing the functionality that anyone even without software knowledge can use. An added advantage of DIP switches over software menus is the former allows change even when the equipment has no power.

Engineers developed the DIP switch in the 1970s, and their usefulness remains relevant even after five decades, for instance, for changing the modality of a video game or for fine-tuning the operation of a machine on the shop floor. Now, engineers are finding new uses for this proven technology in innovative applications such as the IoT or Internet of Things.

Depending on present requirements, manufacturers now present a large variety of DIP switches for modern applications. It is now easy to find surface mount versions of DIP switches, with SPST or single pole single throw, SPDT or single pole double throw configurations, or multi-pole single and double throw options. Piano type side actuated DIP switches, side DIP switches, and DIP switches in sealed and unsealed versions are also available readily off the shelf.

Originally, DIP switches were a stack of manually operated electric switches available in a compact DIP or dual-in-line package with pins. The configuration of the pins of a DIP switch was the same as that of an IC with leads, which made it easy for a designer to incorporate in the printed circuit board. It was usual for each switch to have two rows of pins, one on each side. The distance between the rows was 0.3”, while the pitch or gap between adjacent pins was 0.1”. By taking advantage of the same mounting technique as that of an IC, the DIP switch provided a compact switching mechanism that designers could place directly on the PCB.

By stacking DIP switches side by side, the designer could add as many switches to the circuit as necessary. The versatility of the DIP switch lay in the numerous configurations achievable. For instance, it is possible to generate an incredible 256 combinations from an eight-position DIP switch. Each switch can assume one of two ways, and an eight switches combination can assume one of 256 ways (2 to the eight power).

Earlier, digital electronics mostly used eight bits to a byte, which made the eight-position DIP switch more of a standard at the time. With advancements, digital electronics now encompasses 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and even 256 bits, generating a great demand for DIP switches with new designs.

DIP switches are easier for the user as they offer a visual indication of the present setup.  For manufacturers, DIP switches make it easier to customize their production, at the same time, allowing the user to make changes as necessary.

Electronics for Indoor Farming

With global population growth, there is increasing concern over the sustainability of ecologically friendly farming. Farmers are now adopting innovative technologies for improving the overall efficiency of farming. Among them, the Internet of Things or IoT shows a greater promise with real-time, wireless, and remote sensing, monitoring, and control of indoor farming conditions and operations, such as humidity, moisture levels, soil pH, temperature, and lighting.

Most of the functions mentioned involve complex combinations with farmers often struggling to combine LED lighting, wireless communications, actuators, and sensors with control and mobile applications for gathering the optimum information, analyzing it quickly to generate the appropriate response, and acting upon it. Even for the technologically proficient, implementing existing product offerings is a challenge for deploying a low-power, scalable, cost-effective, reliable, and secure system.

Arrow Electronics, in combination with eInfochips and Analog Devices, offers an end-to-end, one-stop solution for the above problems in the form of the Grow House Evaluation Kit. Their starter kit has the best of technologies, including power management, converter, and signal conditioning from Analog Devices. The kit comes with sensors for moisture and pH, wireless connectivity, LED lighting with a dimming facility, along with remote accessibility via a cloud-based dashboard. All these are available on the iOS and Android platforms.

The Grow House Evaluation Kit is a smarter way to set up indoor farming operations. With wireless connectivity from Silicon Labs, LEDs from OSRAM Light Engine with dimming and color control, the cloud-based dashboard provides remote accessibility for moisture and soil pH levels through ruggedized connectors from Amphenol.

The soil-monitoring node included with the Grow House Evaluation Kit uses leading-edge technologies from Analog Devices. Included in this soil-monitoring node are the power and analog solutions for measuring the pH and moisture levels of the soil with high accuracy for maximizing crop yield.

The IoT gateway included with the kit is based on a platform from Qualcomm 96Boards. The LED node in the kit features the ability to control the color output, intensity, and the UV spectrum of the custom light engine.

Pre-certified ZigBee modules from Silicon Labs implemented with the IoT gateway provides custom control of the LED and Soil nodes. Arrow Electronics offers mobile applications compatible with iOS and Android platforms for configuration and control of the LED and Soil nodes. Arrow Electronics also offers a light engine with OSRAM OSLON Square high-power LEDs, along with design files for customization, but the LEDs are only for demonstration.

Those looking for the complete Growhouse Platform need to order three nodes independently for configuration of the Growhouse. These are the LED Node, IoT Gateway, and the Soil Node.

Vertical farming operations benefit extensively from digital transformation solutions from Arrow Electronics, thanks to their advances in technologies involving sensors and connectivity, and easy access to cloud infrastructure providing cost-effective operations. Although timer-controlled pumps, lighting, and fans do help in farming, digital transformations such as those provided by the Growhouse Platforms go far beyond the simple methods. A digital grow house based on the Grow House Evaluation Kit enables this transformation in the easiest way possible.